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miercuri, 15 august 2012

Sergei Aleksandrovich Tokarev

Sergei Aleksandrovich Tokarev (Russian Серге́й Алекса́ндрович То́карев, 29 December 1899 - 19 April 1985) was a Russian scientist, ethnographer, historian, researcher of religious beliefs, doctor of historical sciences, professor at Moscow State University.

Sergei Aleksandrovich Tokarev was born in Tula on 29 December 1899. He was the son of a headmaster, and in 1917 began work as a school teacher. In 1921 he entered the Faculty of Social Sciences, and in 1925 graduated with honors. From 1927 he worked as researcher at the Central Museum of Ethnology. He also worked as a researcher of the Moscow Public Library faculty of the University of Eastern Communist Workers (TAS), National Academy of History of Material Culture (GAIMK) and the main anti-religious museum.[citation needed] Tokarov left Moscow University in 1930 and went to Siberia, where he taught in several universities, undertook extensive fieldwork. published many historiographical studies and avoided any political controversy. In 1935, Tokarev received a PhD in history without a thesis.

During the period in the 1930s when Stalin had sent many Soviet intellectuals to labor in the gulags, Yeleasar Moiseyevich Meltinsky, often called Zorya, was among those imprisoned. He left his manuscript The Hero of the Fairy Tale with Tokarev, who preserved it for publication years later. Tokarev was a professor of history at Moscow State University from 1939 to 1973. In 1940 he defended his doctoral dissertation "The social system of the Yakuts in the XVII-XVIII centuries."[1] In World War II, he was evacuated from Moscow in June 1941, and headed the history department of Abakan Teachers' Institute.[citation needed] In 1943 he returned to Moscow and was awarded the title of professor. From 1943 he was a section head of the Institute of Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.[1] He was in charge of the department of Anthropology of the American, Australian and Oceanic peoples.

In 1951-1952, Tokarev was the first ethnographer from the Soviet Union to teach in Berlin and Leipzig universities. In 1951 he went to Berlin as a guest of the Finno-Ugrian Institute. His visit may have been arranged by Wolfgang Steinitz, a Jewish specialist in Finno-Ugrian languages who had emigrated from Germany to the Soviet Union in 1933. Tokarev lectured in the German Democratic Republic, stressing how important it was to study social and cultural changes that were occurring in both the towns and the country. He said the goal of ethnology must be to describe and understand the "way of life" of the people being studied, and the changes that occurred to the way of life.

From 1961 Tokarev headed up the Institute's sector on the ethnography of non-Soviet nations in Europe. At the same time from 1956 to 1973 he was in charge of the Department of Ethnography within the History Department of Moscow State University. Under his leadership the department grew and expanded its scope of study. In particular, the study of Slavic, Siberian, Central Asian and African peoples, the history of these peoples and the history of primitive religions and of shamanism were points of attention. Tokarev died in Moscow on 19 April 1985.
Scientific Activities

Tokarev had extremely broad ethnographical interests, and was particularly intrigued by early forms of religion. He wrote about the peoples of Australia, Oceania, America and Europe, and about the Yakuts and the Altay people of Siberia. He wrote about how ethnology had evolved in Russia and in the west. The articles that Tokarev began to publish about Australia and Oceania from 1928 were later incorporated into the 1956 series published "The people of Australia and Oceania".[citation needed] He said once that the Australian Aborigines were "one of the most interesting peoples on the earth, and that Australian studies were one of the most fascinating and promising areas of ethnography. The study of the Australian Aborigines is the key factual base for any study of primitive society." His work in the 1930s on the ethnology and history of the Siberian peoples, especially the Yakuts, used an enormous amount of different sources. In 1940 he published the Essay on the history of the people of the Yakuts, and 1945 The Yakut social system in the 17th and 18 Century.

In the mid-1940s Tokarev began to actively study the other peoples of Europe. In 1946, his article on The ethnographic study of the Balkans was published. In Belgrade, he published work on the Serbo-Croatian language. The next step was the comprehensive representation of anthropology in his 1958 Ethnology of the USSR. Historical foundations of life and culture. Although designed primarily as a textbook for students, this is also an encyclopedic representation of the peoples of the USSR with the historical dynamics of their development. It covers all aspects of traditional culture. The principle of territoriality is seen as an ethno-genetic trait, and each nation is systematically examined in this light.

In 1956 Tokarev published an article on Origins and early forms of religion in the journal Questions of Philosophy. He tried to solve the problem of scientific classification of religious phenomena. He critically examined existing concepts on the basis of a Marxist understanding of religion, with the help of extensive material. In the following years he worked extensively with this topic. In his opinion, classifications should be justified not only in purely formal terms, but also using a historical approach to religion as a social phenomenon. In 1957 Tokarev published his first book on religion, The religious beliefs of the eastern nations in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Tokarev constantly criticized the foreign literature on religion.

Seven of Tokarev's essays on the theme of the traditional beliefs of the Siberian peoples ere published in the 1931 book Religion in the USSR, in which he wrote the chapter about the Siberian peoples. In 1964 he published a general discussion of the subject, Early forms of religion and its development, and religion in the history of nations, a work was printed in four editions, and continues to have scientific significance until today. In 1990 a collection of works was published posthumously, Early forms of religion. In Early forms of religion and its development, he dealt with the problem of introduction of animism and totemism, where he evaluated evidence and prehistoric archaeology.

In his 60s, Tokarev participated in numerous international conferences. In his 70s he continued to publish major articles in anthologies, and in 1978 published his book Sources of ethnography (up to mid-19th century) and History of foreign ethnography. His particular interest was the history of domestic ethnography. In 1966 he published a monograph on the History of ethnography before the October Revolution, the first to cover that subject. In the 1980s he published a four-volume and still indispensable anthology on "Calendar customs and rituals in European countries" (1973-1983).

Tokarev's scientific life's work was enormous and diverse. He was the author of numerous articles in various publications. He oversaw the publication of the collected works of Nicholas Miklouho-Maclay. He edited the works of many foreign authors including James George Frazer, Te Rangi Hīroa, A. P. Elkin, Julius Lips, Thor Heyerdahl, Peter Worsley and many others. Tokarev was a member of the editorial boards of multi-volume editions of "Tales and Myths of the Orient", "Studies in Folklore and Mythology of the East", the 20-volume "Countries and peoples". He also served as principal editor of the Encyclopedia, Myths of the countries of the world.

Tokarev, with his colleagues S. Tolstov, N. Cheboksarov, BO Dolgikh, VI Chicherova, formed a system of education in Ethnography, through which the Department of Ethnography at Moscow State University for a long time held the status of a leading educational institution of this type. Tokarev gave basic courses on "The history of primitive society and the foundations of ethnography," "History of Religions," "The Historiography of Ethnography", "Ethnography of Australia and Oceania", "Ethnography of America", "Ethnography Outside of Europe," and several others.

Tokarev was awarded the Double Knight of the Order of Red Banner of Labor (1945 and 1979), Chevalier of the Order of Friendship of Peoples (1975), the medal "For Valiant Labor in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945." (1945). He gained the USSR State Prize in 1987, posthumously.[citation needed] He was named an Honored Scientist of the Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (1956) and Honored Scientist of RSFSR (in 1971).

Scientific works

    Pre-capitalist survivals in Oirot. M. OGIZ-Sotsekgiz, 1936.
    Essay on the History of the Yakut people. M. Sotsekgiz, 1940.
    The social system of the Yakuts. Moscow, Yakutsk State. Press, 1945.
    The religious beliefs of the peoples of East XIX - early XX century. Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1957.
    Ethnography of the USSR. Univ. Press, 1958. Translated into IT. language - Tokarev Sergej A. URSS: popoli e costume. Bari, Editori Laterza, 1969.
    Early forms of religion, and their development. Pergamon Press, 1964.
    History of Russian ethnography. Pergamon Press, 1966.
    The origins of ethnography. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1978.
    The history of foreign ethnography. MA, Graduate School, 1978.
    Religion in the history of the world. M., Politizdat, 1964. 2nd ed. M., Politizdat, 1965. 3rd ed. M., Politizdat, 1976. 4th ed. M., Politizdat, 1986. 5th ed. M., The Republic, 2005. Translated into different languages.
    Early forms of religion. Sat articles. M., Politizdat, 1990.
    Favorites. The theoretical and historiographical articles on the ethnography of the peoples and religions of the world. M., 1990.
    Tokarev Sergej A. Trieste 1946-47 nel diario di un componente sovietico della commissione per i confine italo-jugoslavi. Trieste, Del Bianco editore, 1995.
    Tokarev SA Religioni del mondo antico dai primitive ai celti. Milano, Teti, 1981.
    Answer. Editor: A History of the Yakut ASSR. Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1957. 2nd that.
    Answer. Editor and author of chapters: In a multi-volume series "The peoples of the world. Ethnographic Essays ": 1) The people of Australia and Oceania. Pergamon Press, 1956. 2) *The people of America. In 2 vols. Pergamon Press, 1959. 3) The peoples of Europe overseas. In 2 vols. Pergamon Press, 1964.
    Answer. Editor and author of chapters: Fundamentals of ethnography. Textbook. MA, Graduate School, 1968.
    Answer. Editor and author of chapters: Calendar customs and traditions of foreign countries in Europe. In 4 volumes. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1973, 1977, 1978, 1983.
    In the scientific and popular 20-volume edition of "Countries and Peoples": 1) Ed. Ed.: Overseas Europe: Western Europe. M., Thought, 1979. 2) Answer. Ed.: Overseas Europe: Eastern Europe. M., Thought, 1980. 3) A member of the main edition. College: Western Europe: Northern Europe. M., Thought, 1981.
    Answer. Editor: JG Frazer The Golden Bough . M., Politizdat, 1980. 2nd ed. M., Politizdat, 1983.
    Answer. Editor: JG Frazer Folklore in the Old Testament . M., Politizdat, 1985.
    Answer. Editor and writer: Myths of nations of the world . In 2 vols. M. Izdatelstvovo "Soviet Encyclopedia" . In 1980. 2nd ed. Moscow, Publishing House "Soviet Encyclopedia", 1987.

He published over 200 articles and introductions to different editions.



    "Tokarev, Sergei Aleksandrovich". Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). 6. The Gale Group, Inc.
    Kabo, Vladimir Rafailovich (1998). The Road to Australia: Memoirs. Aboriginal Studies Press. ISBN 978-0-85575-312-2. Retrieved 2012-08-14.
    Kockel, Ullrich; Craith, Mairead Nic; Frykman, Jonas (2012-03-22). A Companion to the Anthropology of Europe. John Wiley & Sons. p. 113. ISBN 978-1-4443-6215-2. Retrieved 2012-08-14.
    Sárkány, Mihály; Hann, C. M.; Skalník, Peter (2005). Studying Peoples in the People's Democracies: Socialist Era Anthropology in East-Central Europe. LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 978-3-8258-8048-4. Retrieved 2012-08-14.

Further reading

    Alekseev VP Tokarev memory of Sergei Alexandrovich / / Sov. ethnography. In 1985. Number 4.
    Kozlov S. Ya ... and the day lasts longer than a century / / Ethnographic Review. Number 5. In 1999. pp. 3–15.
    Kozlov, S. J. imperturbable freedom / / NG Religion . September 12, 1999.
    SY Kozlov Sergey Tokarev (1899–1985) / / Portrait of historians. Time and fate. T. 4. Modern and Contemporary History. - Moscow: Nauka, 2004. S. 446-461.
    SY Kozlov Sergey Tokarev: "Ethnographic University" / / Outstanding domestic ethnologists and anthropologists of the XX century. - Moscow: Nauka, 2004. S. 397-449.
    Markov, GE, TD Nightingale Ethnographic education at the Moscow State University (the 50th anniversary of the Department of Ethnography, History Faculty of Moscow State University) / / Sov. ethnography. 1990, № 6.
    List of publications SA Tokarev (To his 80th birthday) / / Sov. ethnography. In 1980. Number 3.
    Scientific Council of the Institute of Ethnography, USSR Academy of Sciences dedicated to the memory of Sergei Alexandrovich Tokarev / / Sov. ethnography. In 1990. Number 4.


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